A cross-cultural analysis of the effectiveness of transformational leadership

By: Gretchen M. Spreitzer, Kimberly Hopkins Perttula, Katherine Xin

Spreitzer, G.M., Perttula, K. & Xin, K. (2005) A cross-cultural Analysis of the Effectiveness of transformational leadership. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(3), 205-228.


This research examines how the effectiveness of transformational leadership may vary depending on the cultural values of an individual. We develop the logic for why the individual value of traditionality (emphasizing respect for hierarchy in relationships) moderates the relationship between six dimensions of transformational leadership and leadership effectiveness. The hypotheses are examined on leaders from Asia and North America. The results indicate support for the moderating effect of traditional values on the relationship between four dimensions of transformational leadership (appropriate role model, intellectual stimulation, high performance expectations, and articulating a vision) on leadership effectiveness.